- Timing and Spacing refers to how many frames are used to animate an action, and how close together these frames are. If there are 10 frames of a ball rolling and the ball is spaced out and travels further, the ball will roll faster; whereas if the ball was closer together in each frame, not moving as far, it would appear slower.
- Squash and Stretch shows flexibility in a model. Squashing an object on impact and stretching it when it’s rebounding, or if something’s about the close back up, exaggerates the movement of the animation because it will be smoother and more realistic when it’s played back.
- Anticipation is used to sell a realistic moment in a scene where characters interact, for example. If someone walks into a room, other characters in the scene would look at them before they get into frame to prepare the audience.
It is also used to make a movement believable; before a person walks forward they may lean back, and before they jump they bend their knees. This makes the animation make more physical sense.
- Ease in Ease Out/ Slow in Slow Out is the acceleration and deceleration of an object. During a movement there may be closer frames at the beginning and the end of the action, with exaggerated frames in the middle to highlight those frames, as they’re what the easing was leading into- and they’re what the animator wants you to see.
- Follow Through and Overlapping Action are similar but still slightly different. Follow through is not everything on an object moving at the same time, so when a truck carrying boxes suddenly stops, for example, the boxes might still roll forward once the truck isn’t.
Overlapping action just means for one part of an object to lead the rest into an action, following its course. An example of this is someone kicking forward- the hip leads the thigh to lift, then the knee will stretch out straight and the calf/ankle will swing forward afterwards.
- Arcs make animations look far smoother. If an action follows as arch it looks realistic and has a flow to it. It makes a subtle movement.
- Exaggeration is used to enhance a movement, like making something move further than it should to imply more impact when being hit, or a higher bounce to add flexibility and airiness to an object in the scene. It adds extra emotion and personality to even daily (inanimate) non-living objects.
- Staging is used to set the scene of an animation. How your camera is angled and where objects are placed and set out changes the scene a lot, and you can choose the focus here. The way a character is set out affects how much of it you can see; This ca be improved by assessing its silhouette.
- Secondary Action compliments a primary action- aka. an accessorising animation. If a character runs and their arms swing with their legs, the arm swinging makes the character look alive and makes the action smoother.
- Straight Ahead animation is different to Pose to Pose; straight ahead means to animate frame by frame, whereas pose to pose is animating between two key frames.
- Appeal is what makes an animation interesting to the viewer, though it may not be pretty. A villain cold have exaggerated eyebrow movements when they’re angry, or a lot could move when a heavy object smashes into the ground- all of this is appealing and interesting to catch the viewer’s eye.
- Solid Drawing can made 2D animations far more realistic, were someone could add a 3D style realism background to a 2D character, making them seem to be plausable and accessible in a three-dimensional scene.